Thanks for that list of useful references. I'd like to add the 60-page "Catalog of Temporal Theories" by Pat Hayes: http://www.ihmc.us/users/phayes/docs/timeCatalog.pdf
At the end of that catalog, Pat includes a very important disclaimer:
> There is almost no end to the temporal structures that could be defined
> and that might be useful. For example, this document has not considered
> intermittent intervals, or developed the idea of branching-time clocks,
> or transitivity tables for relativistic time. However, these ideas are
> clearly capable of considerable expressive power, and I hope that the
> careful comparative development might be of some utility to future
> temporal formalizers.
In short, don't expect, imagine, or hope that any particular formulation is, will be, or can be the final definitive word on time.