[Corpora-List] "Tajweed" in English dictionaries and corpora

Adam Kilgarriff adam at lexmasterclass.com
Thu Feb 28 12:44:31 CET 2013


I just wrote a book chapter on "How many words are there" which seems moderately relevant - here's part of the section on imports:

*Restaurant English*

As explained by Douglas Adams in the Hitchhikers’ Guide to the Galaxy, a distinct form of mathematics takes over in restaurants. Likewise, a distinct form of English. Let us make a linguistic visit to the grandest of our local vegetarian restaurants, ‘Terre a Terre’. A sample of their menu:

Red onion, mustard seed, cumin crumpets with coconut curry leaf and lime sabayon, ginger root chilli jam and a fresh coriander, mint salsa sas. Served with thakkali rasam of tamarind and tomato, nimbu bhat cardamom brown onion lemon saffron baked basmati rice with our confit brinjal pickle.

The peculiar thing about this form of English is that, while the language is English, most of the nouns don’t seem to be. They form a subtext to the history of the population itself, with:

- Indigenous: *onion mustard seed crumpet leaf root jam mint pickle*

- Fully naturalised: c*umin coconut curry lime ginger coriander tamarind

tomato cardamom saffron rice*

- Recent (within my lifetime)*: salsa bhat basmati confit brinjal*

- Novel*: s**abayon sas thakali rasam nimbu*

A restaurant like Terre a Terre is at the leading edge of both culinary and linguistic multiculturalism. All sorts of other areas have their borrowings too: wherever we share artefacts or ideas or practices with another culture, we import associated vocabulary, for example in music (*bhangra, didgeridoo*), clothes (*pashmina, lederhosen) *or religion *(stupa,muezzin)*. The question “but is this word English” feels narrow-minded and unhelpful. To give a number to the words of English, we would need to be narrow-minded and unhelpful .



On 28 February 2013 10:03, Eric Atwell <E.S.Atwell at leeds.ac.uk> wrote:

> Can anyone point me at research on vocabulary related to Islam,
> and how it figures in British dictionaries and corpora?
> (other than "Terrorism" of course - well-researched by corpus linguists :-)
> We have a UK-EPSRC project on "Natural Language Processing Working
> Together With Arabic And Islamic Studies", focussing on Tajweed.
> I've just discovered a Quite Interesting fact about Tajweed:
> It is worth noting that even though "Tajweed" is a term understood by
> most British muslims (2.7 million or 5% of the UK population according
> to UK Census 2011), the word is left out of most British English
> dictionaries: it is not found in the Oxford English Dictionary, the
> Collins English Dictionary, or the Longman Dicitionary of Contemporary
> English. "Tajweed" is also not found in the 100-million-word British
> National Corpus, although Google search for "tajweed" reports "About
> 1,800,000 results".
> The only English-language "dictionary definition" I could find for
> "Tajweed" was in Wikipedia:
> Tajw.d (Arabic: ...... ta.w.d: IPA: [tŠ.wi.d]) is an Arabic word for
> elocution and refers to the rules governing pronunciation during
> recitation of the Qur'an.
> I would have thought that, although the word is Arabic by origin, it is
> now a fully-British English loan word, used by many British English
> speakers....
> Eric Atwell, Associate Professor, Language research group,
> I-AIBS Institute for Artificial Intelligence and Biological Systems
> School of Computing, Faculty of Engineering, UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS
> Leeds LS2 9JT, England. TEL: 0113-3435430 FAX: 0113-3435468
> WWW: http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/**eric<http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/eric>
> http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/**nlp <http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/nlp>
> http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/**arabic<http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/arabic>
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-- ======================================== Adam Kilgarriff <http://www.kilgarriff.co.uk/> adam at lexmasterclass.com Director Lexical Computing Ltd<http://www.sketchengine.co.uk/>

Visiting Research Fellow University of Leeds<http://leeds.ac.uk>

*Corpora for all* with the Sketch Engine <http://www.sketchengine.co.uk>

*DANTE: a lexical database for English<http://www.webdante.com>

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