[Corpora-List] Re: Google searches as linguistic evidence

Ramesh Krishnamurthy r.krishnamurthy at aston.ac.uk
Tue Dec 12 09:35:01 CET 2006



>I suppose I should do 'a research' on this.


Sorry, I thought I already had: here is my posting of 8/12/06:

The Cobuild dictionary (3rd ed 2001) entry describes "research"

>as "N-UNCOUNT also N in pl",

>i.e. it is uncountable (ie not used with a/an in singular form);

>but is also used as a plural noun.

>

>Bank of English evidence:

>

>>Query is "researches/NOUN" [*Note from RK: to

>>the extent that the POS tagging is accurate...]

>>Term 1 in your query has been selected as the node

>>

>>272 matching lines

>

>>Corpus Total Number of Average Number per

>> Occurrences Million Words

>>

>>brbooks 76 1.8/million [BRITISH BOOKS]

>>newsci 10 1.3/million [NEW SCIENTIST]

>>strathy 19 1.2/million [CANADIAN DATA]

>>indy 29 1.0/million [INDEPENDENT]

>>guard 30 0.9/million [GUARDIAN]

>>usbooks 23 0.7/million [USA BOOKS]

>>usacad 4 0.6/million [USA ACADEMIC]

>>usephem 2 0.6/million [USA EPHEMERA]

>>brmags 24 0.5/million [BRITISH MAGAZINES]

>>brspok 9 0.4/million [BRITISH SPOKEN]

>>times 23 0.4/million [TIMES]

>>bbc 8 0.4/million [BBC WORLD SERVICE]

>>econ 5 0.3/million [ECONOMIST]

>>oznews 8

>>0.2/million [AUSTRALIAN REGIONAL NEWSPAPERS]

>>brephem 1 0.2/million [BRITISH EPHEMERA]

>>wbe 1

>>0.1/million [GLOBAL BUSINESS ENGLISH]

>>sunnow 0 0.0/million [SUN/NEWS OF THE WORLD]

>>usspok 0 0.0/million [USA SPOKEN]

>>npr 0

>>0.0/million [USA NATIONAL PUBLIC RADIO]

>>usnews 0

>>0.0/million [USA REGIONAL NEWSPAPERS]

>

>Of course, a lot of English texts on the Web are

>also written by non-expert English speakers,

>which will affect the distributions...

>I wonder if the proportions are the same for other languages?


[I meant by this: "I wonder to what degree
non-native Spanish on the Web affects the Google counts for
Spanish patterns of usage"]

I can also now provide some concordance lines for
the plural usage of "researches":


> but Winthrop D. Jordan, whose researches

> have added enormously to our

> secretary, helped too. Henry's researches

> in electromagnetism in the 1830s

>of the speed of light. Michelson's researches in

>the 1870s and 1880s helped

>of the speed of light. Michelson's researches in

>the 1870s and 1880s helped

> suited to Mondrian's new researches:

> Its diagonal edges allowed him

> Monetary Fund <p> Private researches

> <p> More than 100 specialized

> Second World War, and began the researches

> at Jodrell Bank, which

> or, to be precise, on pioneering researches

> he undertook into nuclear

>with a quote from Mark Twain: `The researches of

>many commentators have already

> in his numismatico-metallurgic researches:

> the British currency has been

> the ceiling which their costly researches

> would encounter sooner or later.

> the data upon which the group's researches

> are based. The database is a

> in the course of her historical researches

> Wertheim completely changed her

> even the rough location of his

> researches-around the Skerki Bank off

>University of Cambridge. His early researches

>were indeed remarkable, and it

> work and lingered over one of my researches,

> which was very small and

> breed. John Coffin's historical researches

> into his ancestors had caught

>or so away, where he was doing his researches,

>and so knew practically every

> hysterics. <p> Somewhere in his researches,

> Alastair had come across an

>working in his hotel, or doing his researches on

>his own: her secret advice

> with the results of their researches

> being made available to the

> since, with any luck Bardi's researches

> will come to a dead end there."

> <o> But so far as the author's researches

> suggest, this is the first

> of the highest in Scotland. The researches

> of my nephew Richard

> what she had learned from her own researches,

> Alex found that Eve's story

>his next question. <p> How are the researches

>going? Did Peter Brewster come up

> shall I say # untoward? Your researches

> and the way you're handling them

>The first is that the young poet's researches

>into folklore and occultism were

>his emerging thought, and that his researches in

>these areas therefore bear the

> a direct knowledge of Yeats's researches

> into magic. We could not entirely

>For concise summaries of the major researches on

>Yeats and occultism, see Anglo-

> the early writings based on his researches

> into fairylore, the book would be

>come across dozens of times in his researches

>into Irish folklore, a folklore

> s valuable bibliography of researches

> in the area, pp. 203-17. Works to

> Von Reichenbach, Baron Karl, Researches

> on Magnetism, Electricity, Heat,

> of Indian society and on his own researches

> into Mughal economic history. It

> also in F. Braudel's polymathic researches

> into the nature and evolution of

> their economic studies and policy researches

> than on imperialism theory, and

> his attempts to carry his researches

> on to a world stage from which

>the implications of his historical researches

>and their application to

> Cournot, Augustin (1960 [1858 # Researches

> into the mathematical principles

> 1956) brings together his earlier researches

> into the nature of power in the

> of sources. Prominent are his own researches,

> some of which had been

> have regulating effects. In fact researches

> implicate solar radiation levels

> up during the present intensive researches.

> <p> <f> Treatment <f> Not

> indoors isn't logical. <p> New researches

> have suggested it may be possible

> nothing. If he had studied the researches

> of his ostensibly more extreme

> of the lost continents, or the researches

> of some scientist into their

> of research, our experimental researches

> and our theoretical progress have

> <f> RKP, 1972). In his researches,

> he detected what he called an #

>the pioneer racing driver although researches

>reveal that he did very little

> homeland or areas adjacent. The researches

> of Nabia Abbott have revealed at

> health. <f> I <f> <p> My own researches

> have tended to indicate that the

> the development of Geoffrey's researches

> in the course of writing the <f>

> the term of his long Hermetic Researches

> by directing him on the true path

> that Waite had obtained from his researches

> at the British Museum. This is

> to build, as it must, upon his researches.

> <p> But the outer form of the

> to telepathy in some experimental researches -

> although other studies have not

> totally trivial and wasteful researches

> have been tolerated for years,

> story of Margaret Mead's Samoan researches

> and their present debunking

> at the history of diet and their researches

> have shed much light on the

> content, according to the researches

> of the Shute Foundation for

> Registered Charity. <p> Researches

> into illnesses caused by

>or the handicapped were opened and researches

>into the needs of the disabled

> appeasement gained through the researches

> of Donald Cameron Watt, which is

> to the detailed `wholistic" researches

> already referred to, both

> the Navigator. Inspired by the researches

> of the prince and his team of

> Appalachian field project. Liz's researches

> had amused her, and she had given

> inconsistencies in his researches

> to the malevolent intentions of

> attitudes. At the same time the researches

> of Christian biblical scholars

>activities were accompanied by the researches of

>Christian biblical theologians

>even more widely. According to the researches of

>Werner Bergman, six to seven

> attacked Jews, and the researches

> of Christian biblical scholars

> time to devote to his historical researches

> and his subsequent verbal venting

>jobs, stated that from a series of researches it

>had been established that

> seen by scientists. The team's researches

> suggested that this species'

> closely. Only time and further # researches

> will determine which of these

> time during his ornithological researches

> at the magnificent natural

> work on the subject, and his researches

> for it had taken him to the Congo

> to receive attention too, and researches

> ultimately disclosed that in

> findings when she published her researches

> in 1946. Firstly, the other

> however, Gauss, prompted by his researches

> into the asteroids' path, had

> important stimulus to Einstein's researches

> was an awareness of differences

> he had little time for his own researches.

> While working at the hospital,

> and he determined that his future researches

> should be to that end. <p> THE

> any way restrict your legitimate researches

> and their logical formulations.

> and superstition. Thanks to the researches

> of psychologists, man is in a

>Cowles Prichard, whose first book, Researches

>into thc Physical History of

> He was encouraged to continue his researches

> and, indeed, liberally subsidised

> actually write the book and his researches

> influenced the way in which the

>Dace summarised the results of his researches as

>indicating that `Japanese

>are handled between countries. The researches of

>the Industrial Marketing Group

> Institute at Oxford employs 25 researches

> working on biology and

> in various ways: in the number of researches

> carried out, the nature of the

> of the teacher's behaviours. Researches

> carried out into pre-service

> those reported in two other such researches:

> in one study, evaluation was

> has succeeded in marshalling her researches

> into an attractive and readable

> others are nudged by biology. <p> Researches

> of chronobiology (the study of

> ways and on different days. Researches

> suggest that, in order to

> The fruit of Simon's historical

> researches-he is a scholar of Scotland'

>were more common. <p> The Concorde researches

>say that these preliminary

> oval locket is testimony to their researches

> into Japanese cloisonne work. <p>

> simply stop fishing. <p> Tim's researches

> into argulus suggest it has been

> used for other functions. John's researches

> found this particular shape was

>of sperm.to determine the problem, researches

>analyse a sperm sample to find

> lecturer Cumming, who turned her researches

> into a phd. `She was a very

> to become homosexual." <p> The researches

> have warned that the gene marker

> known. The results of his researches

> reveal an extraordinary and

> new words to fill the gaps. My researches

> have revealed, for example, no

> his priests. Wojtyla's protracted researches

> were clearly an attempt to solve

> tramped several marathons for his researches,

> and has clearly devoted himself

> by primarily) male psychoanalytic researches,

> conducted by, among others,

> and the European community. Researches

> could be paid to produce

> of its recent history and his researches

> into the earlier days have given

> wrought in his own life by his researches

> and about the power of this

>is not always easy when television researches

>ask aggressively, as they did in

> challenge traditional scientific researches

> into cancer cures, Kurtz warns,

> According to Ms Lestor's hasty researches,

> the other four did ask questions

> of winning in every draw? My own researches

> have yielded only one possibly

> drawn from Rentoul's parallel researches

> and draft" text. It amounts to an

> from driving for 10 years. <h> Researches

> into crocodile blood bring hope

> that remains hidden. But his researches

> in the east have already had

> has come to light thanks to the researches

> of Michael Crick, published in

> 70,000 a year. Mr Milburn's researches

> show that among 23 recent

> not just those Tudor stiffs. His researches

> range over the present lot, as an

> to tell the world about their own researches

> and resources. Public libraries

> and expert on archery and his researches

> on the range of medieval archers

> academic in the sobriety of its researches,

> analyses and presentation. It

> two Congressional inquiries and researches

> by the Washington Post, New York

> disposition; and extensive researches

> through the Sony rankings fail to

> in Richmond, Virginia for `the researches

> of the learned and the curious".

> published six years ago, said his researches

> uncovered one law lord, three

> telephone directory. My own brief researches

> some years ago suggested that the

> Pierre Coustillas's exhaustive researches

> have turned up a `George J

>NOTE that Colin maccabe's incisive researches

>into British popular culture Why

> development if Anna Raeburn's researches

> are any guide. She picks over the

> the British. Raffles's zoological researches,

> printed by the Linnaean Society

> of drugs on the mind. Davy's Researches

> Chemical and Philosophical,

> poets Coleridge and Southey. The researches

> were carried out under the aegis

> progress of the nitrous oxide researches

> makes little sense as a clinical

> under the influence. The enormous Researches

> Chemical and Philosophical,

> have abandoned his nitrous oxide researches

> at this point, moving on to

> in this way." War on Want's researches

> suggest that much speculation

> Nixon visits while pursuing his researches.

> Here he learns of the grand

> heavily reliant on the original researches

> of her betters. Previously the

> for four years he conducted his researches

> in her house. Dee and I often had

> Matisse remained in his artistic researches.

> The treasures on view belong to

>his sleep and further his literary researches.

>Better a first lady with a

> war of court actions'. <p> In his researches,

> Mr Gregory came across a

> took him in hand, and his researches

> for land claims led him on to

> according to The Economist's researches,

> is the highest of any rich-

> before the peak. He told me his researches

> began in the library of Britain's

> and clumsy, but as one of the researches

> comments, all you need to do is

> where he can carry out his researches

> in an atmosphere conducive to

> effort to show beekeepers what researches

> are directly of use to them.

> which shows that if you look at researches

> into left-handedness, most of the

> which shows that if you look at researches

> into left-handedness, most of the

> talked to Sue Nowak about his researches

> around the world into which kinds

> able to provide drug companies to researches

> in clinical areas and others who

> supporting science in its researches

> and teaching, seeking to promote

> composite-critic. Kaye's careful researches

> into Mandeville's influence found

> of adequate funding of his own researches.

> <p> Dean Clark's financial

> pathology, to carry on with their researches

> and publish the results in the

> the clinical aspects of Connell's researches

> with the cancer clinic which had

> of particle sizes." In all these researches,

> however, Gray was forced to work

> to the support of his son's researches.

> Nor did Gray possess the special

> in his view, were engaged in researches

> related to, and capable of

> of professional knowledge; the researches

> were demonstrably of national

> Orrin Carson directed a series of researches

> into metals and alloys for the

>he directed its principal economic researches

>and also contributed a

> brought to fruition a variety of researches

> and won national and

> of Newton's earliest optical researches

> might have been more persuasive

> be more striking. <p> Brockliss's researches

> reveal that in the French

> s book, together with similar researches

> by Hugo Ott, revealed a mass of

> aid" society. She hopes more researches

> will be done on this and other

> United <p> States. Probably some researches

> should be done on these

> knowledge. Rothenberg, in his researches

> on creative individuals, noted a

> it's still in its early stages, researches

> said they hope in the future,

> the sake of sex; the subsequent researches

> ot historians have revealed the

> accorded her at some point in his researches,

> and he uses it throughout his

> increasingly urgent. Lucas's researches

> allow the author to display his

> helped her husband throughout his researches

> and carried batches of penicillin

> dollar export industry. Some researches

> also believe the pine, which won'

>pcs and Macs can narrow down their researches by

>defining their own equipment.

>pcs and Macs can narrow down their researches by

>defining their own equipment.

> We knew from the Teknoguild's researches

> that they had created machines

> for local and international researches

> and industry interested in

> 9QL <p> Tel: (061) 434 7721 <p> Researches,

> develops and evaluates advice,

> Gorge would have pushed the researches

> of Bishop Ussher off their firm

> before which his thoughts and researches

> never touched upon the problem.

> historical accuracy. Most recent researches

> tend to show that the Puritans

> continuing also his extensive researches

> in entomology. He became a

> said in 1830, `I have carried out researches

> which will halt many savants in

>things clear, than to his original researches."

><p> Equally inspiring to

>the difficulties in relating these researches to

>the contemporary state of

> redressed. De Tocqueville in his researches

> into the state of society in

> of the markets it serves. It researches

> customer needs exhaustively in

> economic advance? A propos, the researches

> of Denison suggest, quite the

> it remains elusive after diligent

> researches--the prized credentials, at once

> zealous (and honestly reported) researches

> often threatened to embarrass the

> of lives, drew directly on the researches

> of Louis Pasteur. By mid-century,

>did their extensive, emotion-laden researches

>into the family from the

> with his earliest psychoanalytic researches,

> he had given conspicuous room in

> historians that their historical researches

> were really a centerpiece to the

> be: <p> Not until the historical researches #

> and] anthropological

>the Deep South helped him with his researches at

>considerable personal risk to

> temperament are the longitudinal researches

> of the child psychiatrists

> of depth of the investigations. Researches

> that originate in understanding

> and family instability. <p> Researches

> have seldom explored the

>satisfactorily displayed as in the researches of

>Political Economy." The

> the inscription: `Founded on the researches

> of Matthew Fontaine Maury while

>do jokes come from? As part of his researches,

>Fry is trying to `plant" a joke

> <p> Todd's most recent researches

> have been in the field of

> writing detective novels and her researches

> into Von Fischer's past unearth

> eye-opening discovery during his researches

> at NASA: `You know, these

> <p> In the course of his researches,

> Schonfeld got a one-in-a-million

> the apparent diversity of these researches,

> the French chemist's career had

> Despite her obviously exhaustive researches,

> Alexandra Lapierre has decided

> It seemed evident to her that the researches

> of L'cole Nationale d'Agriculture

> him to interrogate himself on his researches.

> `I do wonder. whether my own

> developing its own products, OAI researches

> and tests drugs on behalf of

> painter was prolific. Anfam's researches

> reveal that he painted no fewer

> another strand of magnetism, the researches

> of the late Frances Nixon, that

> Paddy" Mayne, DSO, 1987) and his researches

> into the work of the cardiologist

> result of their MORI-assisted researches

> was a hideous blue-green

> The romantic reason is that researches

> indicated this would be the 400th

> newspapers while continuing his researches

> into musical theory. These first

> Greeks to the Renaissance. After researches

> in the British Museum, meetings

> Bown deserves a prize for his researches,

> though the book displays a

> mccann, says the agency's initial researches

> indicate that many young children

> Ferguson's chewing-gum - Thrills' researches

> are as timely as they are

> on experiment and teaching, and researches

> into language, particularly

> from their own experiences and researches.

> I find myself in a constant

> and collaborating in his wife's researches

> which, to his joy, led to her

> our drinks cupboard, I pursued my researches

> into Russia's national grog. In

> had been published." Phillips's researches

> then stalled for a couple of

> and Fiftiese he made detailed researches

> into malnutrition and its

> recommend than to implement. His researches

> continued until the children's

>Majaj published the results of his researches in

>the American Journal of

> The intellectual structure of his researches

> and his genius in finding rather

> the ostensible subject of his researches;

> both Jardine and his firm often

>diagnostic computer. Biotechnology researches at

>Glasgow University have joined

>stake. In Wilson, his biographical researches

>scarcely replicate these

>there will be extra help for these researches

>when the Financial Services

> epidemic broke out during his researches

> into what he had already

> this guide are the fruits of his researches.

> Although all are day trips, they

> and flow uphill. He continued his researches

> as professor of natural

> to more important pursuits, to researches

> after Queen Mary's comb, Wolsey's

>an SS soldier. His urgent, furtive researches

>begin to border on the neurotic,

> prominently in Hoyle's postwar researches.

> The most celebrated outcome of

><p> In parallel, Hoyle kept up his researches in

>solar physics, on the origin

> by a combination of the tireless researches

> of her pianist and of her own

> he has Austerlitz describe his researches,

> `which increasingly diverged

> though highly contentious) researches

> into party opinion in the Commons

>he leaves us in no doubt where his researches

>into centuries of recreational

> known who this was. My in-depth researches

> suggest -- oh, all right, someone

> odd years of previously published researches

> is being represented here as 21st-

> for this novel, Polynesian Researches

> by William Ellis, an Evangelical

> Ellis's four-volume Polynesian Researches

> (1832-34) had been out ten years.

> historian, whose dry academic researches

> are brought suddenly to life by

> happened. But despite endless researches,

> the full truth of the Gunpowder

> of Scottish Studies, where his researches

> in song and folklore had made him

> head of the NCR Knowledge Lab, researches

> how the Internet and e-commerce

> He <ZF0> he wants support for his researches

> which would lead eventually <M0X>

> a wartime success in one of his researches.

> <M01> Oh that <PN1> Sandtex

> was the basis of course for the researches I

> did on illiteracy in adult

> and erm history. Er I go in my researches

> and see er where the origin of

> <ZF0> I should see? Further to my researches

> that er maybe I've overlooked

> in the results of those researches

> before they're published. <ZGY>

> in a variety of different researches

> <ZZ1> <ZZ0> policies institutions

> of doing government-funded researches

> and the example of the Social

> at the time were starting to do researches

> into <ZGY> don't think they were







At 18:44 11/12/2006, James_L._Fidelholtz wrote:


>David L. Hoover escribió:

>...

>[a bunch of interesting examinations of Google results] ...

>>"many researches" will freqeuntly be an error for "many researchers", no?

>...

>Actually, I doubt it. In Spanish (similar facts

>in many other European languages), 'una

>investigación' *could* be the literal 'an

>investigation', but rather more often, I think,

>means 'a research project' or 'a piece of

>research'. In the latter case, the error is

>sometimes made of translating it as 'an

>investigation', which in English sounds like

>something a P.I. or the FBI (resp.

>MI-whatever-the-number-is or Scotland Yard)

>would do. But people with more experience with

>English, especially reading experience only, and

>who are aware of the fact that the example just

>given is wrong in English, will frequently make

>the error of translating the expression as 'a

>research', or 'muchas investigaciones' as 'many

>researches'. So the issue in evaluating such

>collocations is whether the writer is a native

>speaker of English. If they are, then the

>suggestion could be correct. But if they are a

>speaker of one of the other languages with a

>different division of this semantic space (as

>well as, NB, somewhat or very different usage of

>the articles), then it seems to me that this

>other explanation is rather more likely. I

>suppose I should do 'a research' on this.

>Jim

>James L. Fidelholtz

>Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje, ICSyH

>Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla MÉXICO

>


Ramesh Krishnamurthy

Lecturer in English Studies, School of Languages
and Social Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
[Room NX08, North Wing of Main Building] ; Tel:
+44 (0)121-204-3812 ; Fax: +44 (0)121-204-3766
http://www.aston.ac.uk/lss/staff/krishnamurthyr.jsp

Project Leader, ACORN (Aston Corpus Network): http://corpus.aston.ac.uk/





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